Informational Sources and References


Baumrind, D. (1966). Effects of authoritative control on child behaviour. Child Development37, 887-907.

Berk, L. E. (2010). Exploring lifespan development (Second edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Chance, P. (2006). Learning and behavior: Active learning edition (Sixth edition). USA: Thompson Wadsworth.

Dewar, G. (2010). A guide for the science-minded parent. Retrieved from

Dornbusch, S.M., Ritter, P.L., Leiderman, P.H., & Fraleigh, M.J. (1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance.  Child Development, 58, 124-1257. doi: 0009-3920/87/5805-0003/01.00

Grobman, K.H. (2008). Diana Baumrind’s (1966) prototypical descriptions of 3 parenting styles. Retrieved from

Robinson, C.C., Hart, C.H., Mandleco, B.L., Olsen, S.F., Russell, A., Aloa, V., et al. (1996). Psychometric support for a new measure of authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Cross-cultural connections. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED401016)

The Mother Company. (2012). Permissive Parenting [Photograph]. Retrieved from×409.jpg

Shaffer, David R. (2009). Social and Personality Development (Sixth edition). USA: Wadsworth. (2009-2012). Uninvolved Parenting [Photograph]. Retrieved from

Baumrind, D. (1967). Child-care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88.

Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.

Steinberg, L., Dornbusch, S. M., & Brown, B. B. (1992). Ethnic differences in adolescent achievement: An ecological perspective. American Psychologist, 47(6), 723-729.


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